Nevada is an arid state of the USA, lying between California and Utah. Most of the state is within the Great Basin, but parts of the northeast drain into the Snake River and the the southern portion is within the Mojave desert and the Colorado River. Please note that while many outsiders pronounce the state’s name as “ne-VAH-duh”, the correct local pronunciation is [nÉËvadÉ], with a short “a” as in apple,. Although the majority of tourists only visit Las Vegas, Reno and Tahoe to gamble, watch shows, and indulge themselves in food and drink, Nevada offers the more discerning traveler western frontier experiences verging on horse opera cliche, and landscapes utterly different from Europe, East Asia or more populated parts of North America. Nevada achieved statehood in 1864, becoming the 36th state, despite its tiny population. The primary purpose of this early grant of statehood was to pack congress with two more Senators and thus help preserve Northern/Republican dominance in the post-civil war era. At the time, Nevada’s economy was dominated by the mining industry, thus tying the state to the industrialized North. Nevada was also seen as a counter-balance to the more agrarian and confederate-sympathizing California. Over the years, Nevada’s economy has diversified somewhat into agriculture, light industry, distribution, and gaming. However, over 87% of the land in Nevada is still owned by the Federal Government.There are fairly large cultural differences between Urban and Rural areas, and therefore they are treated separately here.The urban areas, consisting of the Reno and Las Vegas areas, are heavily dependent on tourism and thus very welcoming to outsiders. In addition, these areas have seen a huge influx of immigration in recent years from both inside and outside the USA and thus have a cosmopolitan feel. In a gambling town, everyone’s your friend as long as you have money. Recent immigrants from California are widely complained about (especially by the less recent immigrants from California), but that’s about the extent of it.Some rural areas have significant populations of Native American peoples, mainly Paiute and Shoshone. Reservations are found at Fort McDermott on the Oregon border, in the Reese River Valley between the Toiyabe and Shoshone Ranges, around Pyramid Lake and at the northern end of Walker Lake. Local tribes were traditionally identified by their dietary mainstays, which were Cutthroat Trout at Walker Lake, Cui-Ui (a large type of sucker) at Pyramid Lake, and even a type of caterpillar in the mountains near Lake Tahoe. Pine nuts from Singleleaf Pinyons were a staple in most locations and can sometimes be found for sale in rural stores. Visitors to Pyramid Lake should know that any recreational use of the Lake and the reservation land around it require permits. Tribal police spot-check vehicles and hikers for this paperwork, and will issue tickets bearing significant fines if proof of payment cannot be produced.English is the official language of Nevada. Spanish is also widely spoken in Nevada, and like much of the southwest Nevada is heavily influenced by the language, Hispanic culture, and history under Spanish and Mexican rule. Tagalog is also spoken among Filipino populations.Las Vegas and Reno are the biggest airports in the state, with the most destinations served. Elko, Boulder City and North Las Vegas are small regional airports with limited flights.Las Vegas Mccarran Airport is the popular airport serving dozens of airline carriers within the Las Vegas Area. Greyhound serves the state, with service to small towns along the interstates. Megabus run between Reno and Sacramento/Bay Area. To Vegas, several companies have buses from locations around Southern California.California Zephyr runs between the Bay Area, Reno and Chicago. There is no train service to Las Vegas.The interstates are the quickest way to get to the state. The population centers are on the western part of the state.Nevada is big, but it’s population is not. Of the 2.75 million residents in the state, 2.5 live in either the Las Vegas or Reno metropolitan area. Most of the state is empty or consists of small towns. The transportation infrastructure is not as developed as other parts of the United States.Las Vegas to Reno is the only direct air corridor in the state and has plenty of flights daily. This is the best way to get from Reno to Vegas.Amtrak has its route from Emeryville (in the San Francisco Bay Area) to Chicago, stopping at Reno, Winnemucca and Elko within the state. In Las Vegas, there is a 4 mile monorail connecting much of the Strip.Only along the I-15 and I-80 corridor.The best way to travel around the state.There’s an awful lot of desert to explore in Nevada, and it’s very easy to leave civilization behind. While that is a worthy goal, common sense is necessary to avoid life-threatening situations. Here’s some tips for traveling to the more remote desert areas of Nevada:Gambling is the major industry in Nevada, directly responsible for about 20% of total employment. Gambling establishments range from huge casinos boasting slot machines, table games and sports books to small bars and convenience stores with a few video poker games apiece. Las Vegas is the mecca for gambling and people from around the globe come to try their luck at winning big in Vegas’ plethora of expansive casinos. If you can bet money on it, you will find a location within one of any of the casinos to do so. Keep in mind that strict restrictions are placed upon casinos concerning where minors may be present within a casino and these rules are harshly enforced.You must be 21 years of age to gamble or be present whatsoever in a gaming area, such as a casino.Burning Man Festival The Burning Man festival, held annually in the northern Black Rock City in late August and early September, is a festival of “radical self-expression”. The City of Black Rock could be considered one of the most environmentally unpredictable cities in Nevada, travelers going there should be prepared for anything.Most of Nevada is federal land managed by the BLM (U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management) or by the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service). Self-sufficient campers can camp free of charge on land under the management of either agency as long as camping doesn’t interfere with other legitimate uses. Both federal agencies also have developed campgrounds where fees are usually charged. Fees vary by location, averaging about $5 at BLM campgrounds and $10 at Forest Service campgrounds.There are two National Parks (U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service) in Nevada: Great Basin N.P. in east-central Nevada and Death Valley N.P. straddling the California-Nevada state line. The Park Service offers developed campgrounds where fees are charged and no-fee primitive campgrounds. Most of Nevada lies within the Basin-and-Range geographic province, so there are literally hundreds of mountain ranges. Some ranges are short, ten miles (16 km) or so, but others are over a hundred miles (161 km) long. Several ranges have well developed trails, however others are just beginning to be discovered by enthusiastic hikers, who often make their own routes from backcountry jeep roads, cattle or game trails, desert washes, and crosscountry travel which the lack of dense forests makes fairly straightforward. Perhaps not the place for novices to venture alone, however intermediate hikers will find abundant opportunities.The highest peaks over 13,000′ (4,000m) are right on the California border (Boundary Peak in the White Mountains and near the eastern border with Utah (Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park. Other ranges scattered all over the state rise into the alpine zone which begins above 11,500′ (3,500m) in the south to as little as 9,000′ (2,700m) in the north. Many peaks reaching into the alpine zone have evidence of past glaciation such as cirques, moraines and even glacial tarns (lakes), but Nevada has only one contemporary glacier on Wheeler Peak.The driest ranges are those of moderate elevation in the rainshadow of California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains which parallels Nevada’s southwest border. Precipitation increases with elevation, to the north where the Sierra and Cascade ranges are lower, and to the east where the rainshadow effect lessens and moisture moving north from the Gulf of California comes into play. Hikers used to streams and mountain lakes will certainly find them in the Ruby and East Humboldt Ranges in the northeast, and in the Snake Range near Wheeler Peak, however drier ranges have unique landscapes not found in hiking venues elsewhere except perhaps in Central Asia, Africa and Australia. Dry ranges also have unique flora including open subalpine woodlands of Bristlecone and Limber Pine and lower down of Singleleaf Pinyon Pine which bear nuts that were a dietary mainstay of the Paiute and Shoshone tribes.Restaurants in and around casinos in Reno, Las Vegas and Tahoe especially cater to the dietary whims of urban California. Notable chefs have opened restaurants worth a detour from the usual tourist activities. Buffets in casinos are often heavily subsidized in hopes that those who come to eat will stay to gamble. The more upscale examples offer surprisingly good food and plenty of it.Outside of these tourist meccas, food takes on a western character. This is certainly the rule in small town cafes, but also in casinos along borders with Oregon, Idaho, Utah and Arizona drawing a western clientele with different dietary preferences than Californians.Nevada and other parts of the larger intermountain region export beef and lamb, but are no cornucopia when it comes to fruit and vegetables. These are produced in very finite quantities because water is scarce and elevations usually high enough to induce late and early frosts. Accordingly cafes and restaurants with local clienteles serve ‘meat and potatoes’ fare. Coffee can be a weak disappointment. Nevertheless the food can be interesting in a regional way, often making inventive use of a limited range of ingredients. Chinese immigration drawn by railroad-building and mining opportunities established chinese-american cuisine even in remote towns. Urban sophisticates may find it quaintly amusing — chow mein, sweet-and-sour, egg drop soup, fortune cookies and all. Basque sheepherders went everywhere green grass could be found. Their cuisine may not actually be very distinctive, but it is served in multiple courses — perhaps three different entrees — at long communal tables.Nevada may very well have the most relaxed liquor laws in the entire country. Although anti-drunk driving measures and the drinking and purchasing age of 21 are as strongly enforced as anywhere else, that’s pretty much where it ends. Most bars are open 24-7. Privately-owned liquor stores tend to have an extremely comprehensive selection of liquor, beer and wine, especially in Las Vegas. While some bars may close they do so by choice, not by legal necessity. Indeed many Nevada bars have been continuously open every single second for well over 40 years, including holidays. Underage drinking is allowed on private, non alcohol-selling premises, no parental consent is required. However if the legal guardian(21 or older) is present, the minor must get permission. Underage drinking is allowed on alcohol selling premises with parental consent, the legal guardian must be 21 or older though. Underage drinking is allowed for religious purposes. However Underage drinking still counts as a misdemeanor.[5]Most bars feature some sort of casino gaming. Video poker machines are often built right into the bar itself. Indeed it’s unusual to not see something like that in a Nevada bar. Bartenders may even offer you free drinks if you’re actively playing. As with the casinos, Nevada bars tend to take a decidedly cavalier attitude towards smoking

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