Dublin is the capital city of Ireland. Its vibrancy, nightlife and tourist attractions are renowned and it is the most popular entry point for international visitors to Ireland. It’s disproportionately large for the size of Ireland with nearly two million in the Greater Dublin Region – well over a third of the Republic’s population! The centre is, however, relatively small and can be navigated by foot, with most of the population living in suburbs.Founded in 841, Dublin was originally settled by Vikings amongst a population of Celtic tribes. In the 9th century the Danes captured Dublin and had control until 1171 when they were expelled by King Henry II of England. By the 14th century the king of England controlled Dublin and the nearby area referred to as the Pale.
When the English Civil Wars ended in 1649, Oliver Cromwell took over. Dublin experienced huge growth and development in the 17th century because many Protestant refugees from Europe came to Dublin. By the 17th century Dublin was the second greatest city, only behind London, and a period when great Georgian style buildings were constructed that still stand today. Georgian style architecture was popular from 1720 to 1840 during the times when George I, George II, George III, and George IV of England were ruling.In 1800, the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland abolished the Irish Parliament. From this point on, the Irish worked to gain their independence from Great Britain, which they finally won in 1922. The Easter rising in 1916 and the War of Independence greatly helped Ireland win their freedom. One event remembered as a key moment in Irish history is the Easter rising in 1916.A failed attempt to take over the several important buildings, among them the General Post Office on O’Connell Street, led to the arrest of hundreds and execution of 15, now considered martyrs for the cause. Many believe that this event helped gain sympathy for the fight for independence from Britain.Dublin is divided by the River Liffey. On the north side of the Liffey is O’Connell Street–the main thoroughfare, which is intersected by numerous shopping streets, including Henry Street and Talbot Street. On the south side are St. Stephen’s Green, Grafton Street, Trinity College, Christ Church, St. Patrick’s Cathedrals, and many other attractions.Dublin postcodes range from Dublin 1 to Dublin 24. As a rule, odd numbers are given to areas north of the River Liffey, while even numbers are given to areas south of the river. Usually, the lower the postcode, the closer to the city centre.If you’re already in the city, the main tourist office, located in St. Andrew’s Church just off Grafton Street in the city centre (Dublin 2), is a good place to start for information. You can book accommodation and tours there, as well as find general information on where to go and what to do.Although some of Dublin’s finest Georgian architecture was demolished in the mid-20th century, a remarkable amount remains. They were a reminder of the past British imperialism and were pulled without regard to their beauty and architectural significance. They were replaced with modernist or pastiche office blocks, St. Stephen’s Green (Dublin 2) being a prime example. Thankfully, attitudes have changed significantly, and Dubliners are now rightly proud of their impressive buildings from all eras.Being subject to the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, Dublin is known for its mild climate. Contrary to some popular perception, the city is not especially rainy. Its annual rainfall average is only 732.7mm (28.8 in), lower than London. However, its precipitation is spread out more evenly so that on many days there can be a light shower. Winters in Dublin are relatively mild when compared with cities in mainland Europe -daytime temperatures generally hover around the 5C (41 F), but frost is common during the period November through to February when night time temperatures dip below 0C (32 F) freezing point. Snow does occur, but it is not very common, and most of Dublin’s winter precipitation comes in the form of a chilly rain and hail. The lowest recorded temperature in the city is -12C (10 F). It should also be noted that during the first week of January 2010, the city canals froze over for the first time in years–this was a common enough sight back in the 1960’s, 1970’s and 1980’s. It could be said that Dublin’s climate is very comparable to that of the northwest United States and southwest Canada, as well as to much of coastal Western Europe.Summers in Dublin are also mild. The average maximum temperature is 20C (68 F) in July, far cooler than even most of the coldest American cities. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Dublin is a mere 31C (88 F), which in many other parts of the world, even at its own latitude, is just a typical summer day. Don’t plan on too many hot summertime activities. Thunderstorms also don’t happen very often in Dublin, on average only four days a year. Overall, the city’s climate is mild but would be considered drier and less ocean-tempered than western and southern parts of the island of Ireland: expect Dublin to be colder than Cork or Galway in the winter and warmer than those parts of the country in the summer.Dublin is served by a two terminal airport approximately 10km (6 mi) north of the city centre. A full list of airlines flying to Dublin, along with timetables. Ireland’s flag carrier airline, Aer Lingus, flies to Dublin from a large number of European cities.
Aer Lingus fares are often lower than other flag carriers, but in part this has been achieved by matching the service levels of low-fare competitors. As a result, they now charge for checked-in bags and seat reservation at time of booking. Aer Lingus staff are always very friendly and helpful. The planes and flight attendants are decorated in bright green to get passengers ready to see all of the green in Ireland. Aer Lingus fly almost exclusively from Terminal 2 in Dublin Airport.
Ryanair, Ireland’s second airline and Europe’s largest low fares airline, has one of its main bases in Dublin from which it flies to a large number of European airports including Paris, London, Manchester, Liverpool, Madrid and Frankfurt as well as smaller regional airports such as Nantes or Kaunas. While famous for its low fares, Ryanair can be more expensive than other airlines for last minute bookings. All Ryanair flights depart from Terminal 1.There are three types of bus transport to Dublin city:Depending on traffic, journey times can vary from 25min to over an hour. These buses are considerably cheaper than AirLink and Aircoach. Both of these local bus services stop across from Drumcondra train station which is on the Dublin-Maynooth commuter line. Some trains on this line continue past Maynooth and serve stations as far away as Longford. All Dublin Bus buses (except AirLink) do not give change and fares must be paid in coins. Ticket machines near a few outdoor bus stops, including the one at the airport, do not require exact change. Tickets can also be purchased at the newsagent inside the airport. Luggage racks are limited on the local buses, and it is not unknown for drivers to turn away travellers with packs that cannot be stored.A taxi to the city centre should cost around 20 to 30: it can be comparable to or cheaper than the bus options if you are in a group of three or more (as well as a lot less hassle). Taxis are legally obliged to provide an electronic receipt detailing the fare, distance and other pertinent details. Make sure to ask for one as otherwise they often do not furnish such a receipt. A metro connecting Dublin Airport to the city centre is planned, but no work has started on this yet.Unless your destination is Dublin City, it is probably best to use one of the extensive range of other bus services that stop at Dublin Airport and so avoid the city centre traffic.Dublin has two main railway stations. Heuston Station, in the west of the city centre, serves much of the west and south of the country including an hourly service to Cork which also services Limerick.
Connolly Station, in the north-east centre of the city, serves the south east and east coast, Belfast, Sligo in the north-west and suburban commuter services including the Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) system. The two main stations are connected by bus and Luas routes. A direct train line also exists between the two stations, but there are no trains connecting Heuston and Connolly stations. Visit the website for all train services local and intercity.Please note: taxis are available from Connolly station, but there is a group of drivers operating there who will tell you they “don’t know where that is” if you are only going a short distance and will only end up paying them a small amount. This practice is against their own union rules. If this happens, either take their name and registration number (prominently displayed at the front of the car) and tell them you will report them to the union, or follow the luas tracks to the right to busaras. Another taxi stand is past the luas stop on the left, in front of the pedestrian entrance to the bus station, and these drivers will take you where you need to go.Iarnra³d a‰ireann (Irish Rail) , the national railway company, has one of the youngest train fleets in Europe and the Cork train in particular is extremely comfortable. Older trains were phased out completely in 2008 with the arrival of a massive fleet of brand new trains built in Spain, Japan and South Korea. There are internet intercity train fares for offpeak services which are substantially cheaper than over the counter tickets. Food on trains is generally overpriced and carrying your own food on board is normally permitted.Train tickets booked in advance from Irish Rail  can often be much cheaper.A single bus station, Busa¡ras, is the terminus for Bus Eireann services to almost all towns and cities in Ireland (except for a few services to County Meath and County Dublin, which leave from the surrounding streets). It’s next to Connolly train station, 10min by foot from O’Connell Street. There are also services to Northern Ireland and Eurolines services to Continental Europe.
Luggage lockers are in the basement, along with the pay-to-enter public toilets.A number of private bus companies also operate out of the airport and stop in city centre. Kavanaghs has a good service to Limerick and Waterford and Discovering Ireland offers tours around Ireland. Dublin Coach offers an express service to Limerick from Westmoreland Street. Citylink coaches has a good price to Galway and the West, while GoBus now provides a non-stop Dublin-Galway and Dublin-Cork service.Dublin Port has several passenger ferry services to/from Wales and England. The main routes are Liverpool-Dublin and Holyhead-Dublin. Companies from Wales include Stena and Irish Ferries, and from Liverpool, P&O and Norfolk Line. The once key suburban port of Dan Laoghaire, 10 km (6 mi) south of Dublin, is no longer served by any passenger sailings. Crossings from Liverpool are seven hours, while crossings from Holyhead are from 2.5 hours, depending on whether you take a fast ferry or a larger ferry.
Airport: DUB Dublin Airport Cities in Ireland